Friday, February 8, 2008

Mangosteen: Xanthones (3/5)

Medical Properties of Xanthones

Research on Xanthones is ongoing. There are many results people report about health benefits from xanthones that cannot be explained by the science yet. This is likely due to the fact that only about 15% of known xanthones have been studied to any degree.

Some of the known benefits of xanthones based on recent research are:
- Anti-Fatigue - Helps boost energy.
- Anti-Inflammatory - Helps prevent and reduce inflammation
- Anti-Aging
- Helps prevent cancer. According to a preliminary study, six xanthones have been found to be capable of killing cancer cells.
- Helps lower blood pressure
- Helps lower blood sugar. Many people with type II diabetes have reported that it helps them to regulate their blood sugar levels.
- Helps prevent infections - Bacteria, Microbes, Viruses, Fungus.
- Anti-Diarrheal - In folk medicine, the pericarp of the mangosteen (most potent source of xanthones) has been used for centuries to effectively treat dysentery.
- Anti-Parkinson, Anti-Alzheimer. Helps prevent dementia.
- Anti-allergenic - Helps with allergies
- Eye Care - Helps prevents cataracts and glaucoma
- Helps protect the heart and cardiovascular system
- Anti-Obesity

A recent study has confirmed that gamma mangostin, a xanthones derivative found in the mangosteen, is a potent COX (Cyclooxgenase) 2 inhibitor. The COX 2 enzyme is a chemical in the body that causes inflammation. This enzyme is commonly found in people suffering from joint pain and arthritis. However, it is also being found with other diseases as well, that are not as obvious, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, cancer, and Diabetes. In three separate studies, a xanthones derivative of the mangosteen slowed down the body's production of the COX 2 enzyme.

Source: www.xanthonesresearch.com
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Tuesday, February 5, 2008

Mangosteen: Drink Recipes

Mangosteen Lassi (nonalcoholic)
Cool and refreshing, this take on the traditional mango lassi pairs well with spicy foods.

1/2 cup cold Adam's 100% Mangosteen Nectar
1/3 cup plain yogurt
2 tablespoons milk
1 teaspoon honey
Dash of cardamom (optional)

Combine the Adam's 100% Mangosteen Nectar, yogurt, milk, and honey in a blender. Blend well on high speed until very frothy, 1–2 minutes. Pour into a tall glass and sprinkle with the cardamom, if desired. The lassi can be stored in the refrigerator for up to three days, but it’s best served blended again until frothy before serving.



Punchless Mangosteen Punch (nonalcoholic)
If you prefer, you can make this drink without a blender. Simply shake all the ingredients in a cocktail shaker with ice and strain into an old-fashioned glass filled with ice.

3 ounces Adam's 100% Mangosteen Nectar
1 ounce pear nectar
1/2 ounce lime juice
1/2 ounce simple syrup
1/2 cup ice
1 pear slice (optional)

Combine all the ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth. Pour into an old-fashioned glass, garnish with a pear slice, and serve with a straw.


Source: www.mangosteens.com

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Durian: King of Fruits









Scientific Name : Durio sp.
Indonesian Name : Durian
Other Common Name : Durián (Spanish), Durion (French), Doerian (Dutch)

Origin
Native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei.

Uses
Normally eaten fresh, dodol, ice cream, fermented.

Nutrient Content
Durian fruit contains a high amount of sugar, vitamin C, potassium, and the serotoninergic amino acid tryptophan, and is a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. It is recommended as a good source of raw fats by several raw food advocates while others classify it as a high-glycemic or high-fat food, recommending to minimise its consumption. Discover magazine reported an incident where a woman with preexisting renal failure ate a durian and ended up critically ill from potassium overdose.

Plant Cultivation
Durian trees are relatively large, growing to 25–50 m in height, depending on species. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, elliptic to oblong and 10–18 cm long. The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk, each flower having a calyx (sepals) and five (rarely four or six) petals. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods each year, although the timing of these varies depends on species, cultivars and localities. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years. The durian fruit, which can hang from any branch, matures in about three months after pollination. Among the thirty known species of Durio, so far nine species have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, D. lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. testudinarum. However, there are many species for which the fruit has never been collected or properly examined, and so other species with edible fruit may exist.

D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, and tree phenology. In the species name, zibethinus refers to the Indian civet, Viverra zibetha. There is disagreement regarding whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet.

Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious nectar, and give off a heavy, sour and buttery odour. These features are typical of flowers which are pollinated by certain species of bats while they eat nectar and pollen. According to a research conducted in Malaysia during 1970s, durians were pollinated almost exclusively by cave fruit bats (Eonycteris spelaea). However, a more recent research done in 1996 indicated that two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and that the other species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and birds as well as bats.

In Indonesia, durian is available in December–January.

Propagation
Seed, layering, marcotting, or more commonly, by grafting, including bud, veneer, wedge, whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected rootstocks.

Varieties
Matahari, Monthong.

Area of Production
West Java, Central Java, East Java, North Sumatra, South Sumatra, Kalimantan.

Export
-

References:
- http://en.wikipedia.org



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Mangosteen: Xanthones (2/5)

Xanthones in Mangosteen

Here is a list of all of the xanthones found in mangosteen that have been named. There are others that have not been named yet that I have not included in this list. Currently, there are 43 xanthones known to be in the mangosteen.

Concerning the popular supplement Xango, which contains mangosteen puree. It would probably be safe to assume that this would also be a list of xanthones in Xango:

BR-xanthone A
BR-xanthone B
Calabaxanthone
Garcinone A
Garcinone B
Garcinone C
Garcinone D
Garcinone E
Gamma-Mangostin
Garcimangosone A
Garcimangosone B
Garcimangosone C
1-Isomangostin
3-Isomangostin
1-Isomangostin hydrate
3-Isomangostin hydrate
Gartanin
Demethylcalabaxanthone
Maclurin
Mangostenone
Mangostanin
Mangostanol
Mangostin
Mangostinone
Mangostinone A
Mangostinone B
a-Mangostin
b-Mangostin
g-Mangostin
Norathriol
Tovophyllin
Tovophyllin A
Tovophyllin B
Trapezifolixanthone

Source: www.xanthonesresearch.com

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Monday, February 4, 2008

Mangosteen: Xanthones (1/5)










Xanthones are biologically active plant phenols found in a few select tropical plants. Current research on xanthones suggests they are beneficial in helping with many conditions including: allergies, infections (microbial, fungus, viral), cholesterol levels, inflammation, skin disorders, gastro-intestinal disorders, and fatigue.

Xanthones have been found to support and enhance the body's immune system. Xanthones also exhibit strong antioxidant activity which is beneficial for neutralizing free radicals in the body.


Facts about xanthones:
  • The most plentiful natural source of xanthones is the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which contains over 30 xanthones. The mangosteen has by far the most xanthones of any plant. The pericarp of the mangosteen fruit contains the vast majority of the xanthones.
  • Xanthones are some of the most potent antioxidants known. It is thought to be more potent than both Vitamin C and Vitamin E. In fact, many doctors refer to xanthones as "Super Antioxidants."
  • Xanthones are heat stable molecules. Unlike proteins, they won't denature or lose their structure when heated.

Source:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanthone
- www.xanthonesresearch.com
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